What Is Web3 — Why Elastos Is Beyond The Competition

15 min readJan 20, 2021
Elastos Web 3.0

Before talking about the competition of Elastos, I would like to explain what is Web3 firstly. It is really important to understand it since we still don’t know what it is. We can sit our simple assumptions on past knowledge, keeping on simple concepts. We need to define some words too.

Back to school

Definition 1: We call a network or net, a hardware network that allows you to use a means of communication, between computers. (Examples: Arpanet, Usenet, Internet, Intranets, BTC). It’s like sounds.

Definition 2: We call a protocol, a software network that allows you to use a means of communication, between humans. (Examples: Cryptography, BTC, OSI, SNA, DECNET, WWW, Minitel). It’s like a language.

Definition 3: We call a consensus, a “wide enough” human acceptation that allows you to use the same normalized tool, between humans. Most of the consensus are automatics and influenced by external information. A consensus MUST be EASILY usable by everyone. (Examples: BTC, human languages, music sheets). It’s like an accent of language.

The protocols are used on the nets like the languages are transported by the sounds in the air. The consensus is used on the protocol and can influence it, like your accent influence your language.

The definition of the web comes from the expression “World Wide Web” or “WWW”, which is the most used protocol of communication for human today. It uses as a net, the TCP/IP net, or commonly said the “Internet”.


The definition of the version of the web is a complex question.

How can you determine the “update” of a protocol? Protocols are communication methods, so we should observe when people have changed their way of communication; the utilization of data is deeply rooted in this attitude, like how you use words in your language. Data is the glue of human relationships, but why?

Since smartphones, you could transfer data and applications. Apps are “Code”, it’s structured data, a new form of data, that is active by itself. The appearance of smartphones opened the Web2, we still use the same net (TCP/IP) but the protocol updated.

We are still today on the Web2, so what means the Web3? It means we need to create a form of “Data3”, or “Code2”. The objective is to take codes and create a “better” element from this, what it could be?

Language as a Tool

Let’s get back to the example of language from above. You can make words, talk, and makes sense with other people, what happens when you begin to establish long communications? You share your knowledge and you learn from others.

The capacity of imagining things on a conceptual level was the key for the Homo Sapiens species to survive. It’s actually our “organ” for surviving. Thinking for the future is accessible only for humans and allowed them to dominate the animal realm in a very short time frame.

On a higher-level, a great quantity of conceptual thinking creates societies, or, a human consensus: the consensus that working as a team is better than doing it alone. This inter-dependency between humans was created by the Agricultural Revolution. You could say that it has been allowed to share knowledge between generation “adding up” knowledge with time, aka experience.

At this moment, something happened, hidden but very real, Trust was created. And the language was the tool for using it.

If you can’t trust others, you can’t build your conceptual thinking and you can’t survive. Trust is the glue of all human interaction and particularly, currencies. Currencies are the trusted wealth consensus during human history.

Logical steps

Now I ask your full attention, we will go steps by steps. From basic concept to more complex ones :

  • Data (Structured Information)
  • Code/Action (Structured Data)
  • Trust (Structured Code)

As you can see, I see concepts as “Russian Dolls”, there are deeply connected and the same material. Code and Action are the same, it is the intentional move of Data in a particular direction.

Now let’s compare to the “Web versions”

  • Web1 is Data (your web browser on your computer)
  • Web2 is Code (Apps on your smartphone)
  • Web3 is Trust

Web3 is Trust (Structured Code).

And now you got it: the definition of the web3 is just this: structured code that creates Trust, which means code impossible to attack. From what we have seen, Code in web2 is mostly Apps. Then for web3, you need “unattackable apps”.

Web3 is unattackable apps.

An App, that you use every day, is the client-side. The main part of it is based on a server. Which means it is based on an external computer. This big computer must be maintained, so there are always taken care of by businesses. The business can close your App or be enforced by a higher authority like a state. A server is a major point of failure in a web. Without a server, the App is secure. You can’t attack something that does not exist!

Web3 is Secure Apps.

Today, Web2 is very fast and reliable, it’s because the central server are performant and a lot of investments are made into the optimization of them. We have said that Web3 is a consensus, then it MUST be usable by everyone (or it would be just a protocol and not a consensus). It should maintain the progress of Web2 in its usability. So the Web3 MUST be: accessible and fast.

Web3 is Apps, with Security, Speed, and Scalability.

Differently said :

Web3 is Apps resolving the Trilemma.

What is the Trilemma?

The Famous Triangle of Trilemma

note: I consider Decentralisation as part of Scalability, it’s how you occupy space around you. Central servers are very scalable too.

It is the compromise of Secure, Scalable, and Speed (“3S”). If you go fast you are insecure, if you are secure you scale with difficulty. You can have 2 of the criteria, but never 3. Why?

It is because of the incompressible physical limitations of time and space. Any machine/computer existing, in reality, can’t (and will never) have access to a theoretical state, alone. It’s like asking a unique transistor on your computer to do all the work, it’s in theory possible, but it is not realistic.

So how to resolve this solution?

Let’s use the analogy of industrial production. You are the PDG of the productions of socks. You create millions of socks each year and the competition is fierce. Obviously, you want more profits, then you should produce more socks, how to produce, with more speed, in quantity, and security?

Do you do a unique chain of production that will be ultra-effective? Do you make different lines of production that are specialized? Do you make a “mother” production line for the base product, and all the details are put on other lines?

The last solution is the most effective because it optimized space and time. It is a very well known method in the industry: time and space are money. “Mother” line should have all the security (you can still sell basic socks), and all your profits are made by “Childs” lines (the colors, etc…). You can shut down a “Child” line, changing your “thematics” dependents of your market. You can add any quantity of “Child” lines, and have specific ones too.

You optimized time and space by specialization of concepts.

You can see it like this :

  • “Mother Line” = Mainchain = Security
  • “Childs Lines” = Sidechains = Speed and Scalability
  • Sidechains are dependant of Mainchain

It creates this: Scalability and Speed, verified by Security.

Problem solved! You produce a ton of socks, inside security margins!

Mainchain is for Security, Sidechains are for Speed and Scalability.

Internet doesn’t have TPS (Transaction by seconds), it doesn’t have a limit in speed. You can’t have a unique computer handling all the computations of the whole internet. Any blockchain project could be seen as a computer, a very obsolete computer from the 70’, blockchain is a fantastic technology for establishing real Trust between different parties, but it’s not a performance computer.

Trilemma could be seen this too: you can’t have a blockchain consensus, with speed, scalability, and security, it’s impossible by physical limits. You can have a very fast and very scalable computer like Google, but do you trust them? You can trust Ethereum blockchain computers, but is it enough speedy, can they be used by everyone?

For understanding the technicals aspects, you can compare the Web3 (or others) to a computer, or is it possible?

Computer comparison

What is a computer? A “thing” should have 5 specific elements to be a computer.

From the citation of John Gage, an employee at Sun Microsystem in 1984 :

“The Network is the computer.”

That’s where the narrative of today, the Web is seen as a supercomputer capable of handling the computation of the internet of today. But is that possible? This “World Computer” needs the 5 elements, which are:

  • processor
  • unmodifiable memory
  • memory
  • cables
  • Human Machine Interface (HMI), separate from the rest, like a screen, keyboard, and mouse
The Basics

Reported on the Web3/Elastos, we see:

  • Computation: the smartphones/computers of people that already exist
  • Blockchain: as a tool of “Trust”
  • HIVE 2.0:(Personal Cloud “On-demand”, see it as a “store of boxes”)
  • Carrier: A server-less network
  • elastOS : A Personal Computer layer 2 Virtual Machine (PC2 VM) with the OS associated with it

You need to understand that a computer without an HMI is not a computer. A web without an interface is not a web. How normal people use the web without an interface? You actually use the web because of its interface or like you use a computer because of its screen.

ElastOS app is the HMI of the web3/elastos.

And since it’s an Operating System too, it allows separating the users from the rest (the dangerous internet). That’s why ElastOS is the “screen” of Web3.

What is Elastos?

Elastos is the Smartweb or Web3, you could see it as a peer-to-peer network, which means there are no central servers, but there is much more.

The identification of people is done on the DID-Blockchain for having the maximal trust about it.

When you are using the app elastos, you use the “browser” of the Smartweb, you log with your DID (that you own), and select Dapps to use.

If you want to retrieve Data (photos/videos), elastOS connect to Decentralised Storage solutions (like Filecoin or your own hardware), with the help of Hive 2.0, you own your choice, where to stock your data. It’s like a store of boxes where you can choose in which set you will stock your belongings.

ElastOS is an OS and a Virtual Machine(VM), which means it is a “computer” inside your “computer” (your phone), it allows you to protect your phone against automatic HTTP calls. Do you remember the update on your phones without your validation? When your phone connects to the internet, without you? Inside elastOS, each Dapps are VMs as well. That’s why we call them “Capsules”, they are designed to protect what is inside.

Just and many others like FilDA (Decentralized Lending like compound), Tok Swap (Uniswap), Shadow tokens, Green pass (health dapp), crypto name, Any swap (will be built on elastos in 2021), feeds, hyper, devault, Profile/Decentralized Linkedin, Anyswap but I can’t get into it deeply now

Feeds is inspired by Twitter “but better”, you own your own data.

Hyper is a private communication, like Signal, but on a way another level, where is the central server? You will attack who legally, Elastos Foundation? But now since they will “disappear” and give power back to the Cyber Republic? It’s all about locking creation from its start!

Complexity in service of security

The whole security of the web3 rests on a 3 layer protocol :

  1. Auxiliary Proof of Work (AuxPoW)with Bitcoin, protecting against “51% Attacks”, Elastos got 52,4% now of BTC hash rate which means you need to pay

$716 072*52.4% = $375 221,728/hour or more than 9M$ for a day! That’s quite a price to pay!

2) Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS), there are servers that “sign” the block of bitcoins, so it adds a secondary layer above the first. There is a stake to pay for participating (5000ELA) and automatic fees could happen if you are a bad actor. Nodes are voted by the community through an “Oligarchy-Score Democratic” system (means you vote, with ELA, for any 36 nodes of your choice). Most nodes are maintained by elastos community. There are 12 other nodes that are not part of the list and are owned by the Council.

3) Cyber Republic Consensus (CRC), is a human protocol. The council is elected through an “Oligarchy-Plurality Democratic” system (means you vote, with your ELA, for 1 person only). The election happens each year.

The Council of 12 people has one unique role: to vote “for” or “against” a Proposition to give funds to Web3 projects. The acceptance is done after 8 “for”, which is difficult to obtain. The objective is to only accept high efficient projects only.

It goes like this: the community likes a project, Council accepts it, and in the end, Community accepts it again. This Consensus allows us to make decisions and avoid “community fork” that can create tribalism inside the same community. You can see in one view the recent progress of Cyber Republic: https://www.cyberrepublic.org/proposals

You can read more about tribalism in this article and learn why it is something that everyone should avoid. https://anonymous00.medium.com/enabling-a-smart-economy-with-the-smartweb-16e8a9b638e6

The idea is this : to have the same protocol for everyone, on the most secure way. Still, you don’t need to know this for using a dapp!


As you can see, the world computer can NOT exist in reality, it is a “smart” organization of different base concepts of a computer. Creating a “Web3.0 computer” by itself is a physical impossibility, because of the Trilemma, you can’t create a perfect machine that resolves all the world problem with infinite speed and security, it’s unrealistic. You need to differentiate the concepts of Speed, Security, and Scalability. And you need a “screen” that allows any person to use it too.

Elastos (or the Smartweb) focus on this: creating “impossible to attacks” apps that are easy to use for everyone, their names are “decentralized apps” or “dapps”, but I personally prefer them to call them “Good luck hackers Apps”. Anything else that called themselves “dapp” outside of Elastos is technically not. A dapp on a blockchain is not a dapp, it is a blockchain app, which is a very different concept.

For the blockchain Apps, where is their “screen?” Do they solve the Trilemma?

The ease of use and development are both very important, the easiness is an important part of any consensus. Since it’s easy, Devs are welcome to use the “Legos” of Elastos and assemble in their own way for creating their own Dapp.

You can note that the “Trust Consensus” of the Smartweb is actually the “Cyber Republic”, and that Trust consensus is blocked by code. Only structured code can open up Trust on the new web, like cryptography! And with structured Trust, you open to…wealth consensus!

Funded by the Cyber Republic, accepted by Community, validated by Council with the CRC, assisted by awesome teams, Dapps are building the new Web3 now. This trust consensus will create a new form of wealth in this new environment.

Real-life markets, like Credit Oracle that will allow non-crypto people to have investments in trusted virtual banks on the Smartweb. As of now, FilDA focuses on Lending business and give you back “FilDA token” as a form of …trust!

This credit system will be back by the most secure stable asset on cryptocurrencies: The Benchmark token. They utilize a “real-life peg” that uses all currencies of the world (not only the $) and the VIX index that measures volatility in real life! They are part of the Elastos eco-system and we are building together with an ‘all in one” solution for an easy transfer of real assets.

The reality of before and today

  1. The philosophy of the Cypherpunks stay: the power to the people, it can be data, currency, trust, or wealth, but it will be always back to the people, that’s what the internet and the web stands for.
  2. Technologies are like tools: they must stay neutral, open, and public for the good of everyone. It gives power to anyone using it.
  3. Nobody owns the idea of a tool, like a hammer.
  4. The concept of the tool is the first concept build by the humans of the prehistoric era, we can be sure of the effectiveness of this.
  5. Elastos can be seen as the “tool” allowing people to access the “data economy”.

I hope you will understand that we are living in a pre-www Era again.

Code and Data on Elastos will be the new bi-metallic system of the data world economy, like Gold and Silver on Web3.

A consensus, a protocol, or a network are all simple concepts, they are very specific, like tools. They are limited to their context and very often you need more differents concept tools for having an answer.

The more concepts tools you will have, the more it will be easy to understand the world, building your own tools could happen, sharing them too, or working without them at all. A the end of the day, you are the only one in control of them, not the opposite.Never let a concept control you, or making you dependant on it.

My concept: the tools

“Everything in its place and every place has its thing.”

Still, others are trying their best for what they offer, they are not the web3, but there are definitely worth the attention in their own expertise, I present them shortly with my “tool” comparison:

Ethereum (ETH)[ERC-20]

Ethereum is a fantastic technology, you can write lines of code inside a block! Because of it, Smart contracts were and are still used on this globally accepted platform.

However, this project is like a chain saw, it is very practical for its use to cut trees, but you can’t do anything else with it. You are dependant on the gas too and it’s not cheap. Contracts, smart or not, are not the web.

Dfinity (ICP)-[ERC-20]

An Internet Computer that functions on a blockchain, ID is generated by the ICP Protocol on Data Servers. The Network Nervous System (NNS) decides on the direction of the network.

If it was a tool, we could say it’s a Radio, where only the specialists can talk to each other.

Blockstack (STX)

A smart-contract open platform. Their protocol uses a Proof of Transfer (PoX) that allows them, indirectly, a bi-directional profit with Bitcoin.

We can see it as a paperclip, it associates two concepts without having them fuse together.

Polkadot (DOT)

Multi-Blockchain Application environment, they use Substrate technology for their blockchain. A lot of blockchains projects use Polkadot for connecting to any other blockchains.

You can see it as communication cables between industrial machines, each machine can understand each other because of the cables.

Chainlink (LINK)

A platform of decentralized Oracles. An oracle is an external data feeds, outside of blockchains. It is more and more used by all blockchains projects that need information like financial data (or any data).

It’s the “captor” of blockchains, that observe Data and transfer it to anyone interested.

New Kind of Network (NKN)

A blockchain that uses a Proof of Relay (PoR) (meaning you share your connectivity bandwidth )and Major Vote Cellular Automata (MOCA) as consensus. You can use their “nMobile” App that uses their blockchain.

Like Ethereum, it’s more like an electric drill, it’s useful but needs to be connected to electricity (here blockchain).


API Suite(Application Programmable Interface) that allows the connection of Ethereum blockchain to the IPFS technology.

It is a special adhesive tape, specific to its use in this context.

Syntropy (NOIA)

ISP optimization network with DARP protocol (Decentralized Autonomous Routing Protocol) (means a network for only high-quality transmissions)

It’s like your regulator of heat in your house, it will correct each interval of temperature, each second, in the most optimized way.

Filecoin (FIL)

An IPFS based protocol for a decentralized store of data.

They are like the plastic boxes for sorting out your screws and bolts. You choose your sizes and adapt them in the way you like. However, you have only access to plastic boxes, no other ones.


A hardware network of “Pods” that people will have, they use a form of Data called “Linked Data”. Their ID system uses the OpenID protocol.

We can see it as the expensive metallic boxes for putting away nuts. Obviously, you can only use those metallic boxes and nothing else.

And obviously,


Elastos is the Web 3.0, which everyone searches and talks about. For doing such a technology, you need to redo the concepts from their base. That’s what has done Rong Chen, founder of Elastos, he has been an expert in Operating System for 35 Years. You just can’t replace experience.

Elastos is THE Elastic Web with a high-level security network and a high-level security OS as protocol. The consensus working on this protocol is the Cyber Republic Consensus. It can be used by everyone with elastOS, and by its Capsules Dapps, it allows a new form of economy: the Data economy. Welcome to a new form of wealth where any data about you, you own it.

Elastos is your garage, you can work in there, create what you want, begin a business inside or just have fun with friends.

Welcome to the SmartWeb!